GeoURI – I have no earthly use for these, but I love that they exist, and are even an IETF standard!
Nathaniel Bowditch – He created the American Practical Navigator over two hundred years ago. He improved the data quality of previous works and made the results widely available in a form non-specialists could easily understand. That approach transformed navigation then, and it's still incredibly effective today across all sorts of fields.
Digital Elevation Data – On that topic Jonathan de Ferranti has spent years painstaking correcting open-source geographic data about the height of the earth's surface, and then releasing the results openly to anyone who needs them. It may be hard for non-geo folks to understand how tough a problem this is, and how hard he's worked on it, so here are some example renders and an independent review.
Sentiment Analysis Corpora – A fantastic summary and comparison of the raw data sets you need to build sentiment analysis algorithms.
A Major Breakthrough in Image Processing – It's time to retire Lena!