BHOs and threads


Vlad Simionescu asked me some questions about how BHOs behave with threads. This isn’t an area either of us have been able to find documentation on, so I’ll just have to give a description of what I’ve seen in practice. I’ll be posting a request to the MSDN forum to see if anybody in a position to give a definitive answer can correct anything I’ve got wrong.

Internet Explorer uses a single-threaded apartment model for threading, as I discovered in a post from Tony Schreiner. Exactly what this means, I have no idea, since I’m just used to the plain unix pthreads, but I’m sure some googling would resolve the differences between the various windows thread models.

In practice, it appears that each window (pre-IE7) or each tab (IE7) has its own thread. Since there’s a BHO instance created for every browser instance, this means that there’s a one-to-one mapping between each instance of your BHO, and a thread. It seems like every Invoke() call to an instance of a  BHO is made on the same thread, and that thread is the one associated with the browser tab/window.

This is important, because as Tony’s post explains, you can’t use COM interfaces on different threads without jumping through some hoops. This allows you to store pointers to COM objects that will be used from descendants of your Invoke() method, without losing sleep about possible threading errors. It seems like you only have to worry about making your code thread-safe if you create your own threads. You do need to be able to cope with multiple BHO instances running simultaneously on different threads, but this should be trivial as long as you’re avoiding global variables.

This one-thread-per-BHO behavior is implicitly relied on in both Sven Groot’s examples and my work on hooking into the windows messaging procedure. We both use the current thread to work out which BHO we should pass events onto, since there’s no other way to map a window procedure call with a plugin.

More posts on porting Firefox add-ons to IE

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